Monday, November 26, 2012

EDSS 521 Blog Post #5


This semester, I have been surprised by the literacy levels of my students.  They are able to read the biology textbook passages without much difficulty (with the exception of the English learners).  However, they are not able to comprehend fully what is stated in the text.  We routinely spend some time reviewing the content in the textbook to clarify or elaborate on the new ideas introduced in the readings.  My students have difficulty with writing complete thoughts when completing their lab reports.  

What will my literacy-rich classroom look like?

Journal - September 30, 2013

My literacy-rich classroom looks like a classroom full of students that require a lot of guidance toward proficient writing skills.  My students are engaged in hands-on activities like the lab exercises.  However, they have difficulty completing their lab reports.  Most of my students are reading the textbook at grade level, but they have some difficulty with reading comprehension.  They also have difficulty writing grammatically correct sentences in the lab report.  My classroom is a print-rich environment with a word wall full of difficult biology vocabulary words for the students to see and connect with ideas and concepts.  I have my students write about their lab observations and sketch what they see in the experiment on their lab reports.

Journal - December 15, 2013

My literacy-rich classroom looks like a classroom full of students that have made improvements in their writing skills in their lab reports.  The students have been provided with a rubric for every lab report so they are aware of the expectations.  We have spent some time in class working on how each section of the lab report (problem, introduction, hypothesis, data collection, data analysis, conclusion) should be constructed.  My students are engaged in multiple activities throughout the period to keep them engaged.  They are reading their textbooks more efficiently and are better able to comprehend the content.  I model proficient writing for the students therefore, they are writing better quality lab reports with grammatically correct sentences.  Their discussions during interactive activities are rich with detail and the students are contributing more to the discussions.  My classroom instruction incorporates strategies that support ELLs to learn and understand the biology vocabulary and concepts as well as English language skills.

Journal - May 30, 2014

My literacy-rich classroom looks like a classroom full of students that are proficient readers and writers.  They are able to complete a lab report without much difficulty and have less corrections made by the teacher.  My students participate in collaborative activities such as group projects and Think-Pair-Share and are able to orally communicate their thoughts and ideas efficiently and proficiently.  They are also capable of independent work.  They are engaged in every activity, which are purposeful, meaningful and productive.  They are capable of independent learning in the following areas: (1) following directions, (2) making predictions and generating a hypothesis, (3) analyzing data, (4) making logical conclusions, (5) collaborating with peers, (6) self regulating their own learning/taking responsibility for their own learning.  My students are awesome and I am so proud of their accomplishments this year.

Wednesday, November 7, 2012

Project Tomorrow!

  • Choose one of the reports from the link and write a brief summary of (3-5 sentences). In your reflection include your opinion, what surprises you, what doesn’t, and how you will use the information to inform your own teaching. (http://www.tomorrow.org/speakup/speakup_reports.html)

Speak Up Report: Learning in the 21st century: A 5 year retrospective on the growth in online learning.
According to a report published by Project Tomorrow (1), the move toward online learning is growing each year and will continue to do so.  Students, parents, teachers, administrators and the general public are more connected than ever before.  The increase in popularity of flipped classrooms and websites such as Khan Academy has brought online learning to the forefront.  There are many benefits of online learning including flexibility, convenience, saving time, and customized learning.  According to the report, more than 50% of educators took online classes for professional development purposes. 
Prior to starting the Single Subject Credential Program, I participated in a couple of online classes to fulfill my pre-requisite requirements.  During the first few weeks, I was unsure about how much I would actually learn by participating in an online class.  How would we interact with each other?  How would I be assessed?  There were many unanswered questions going into it.  However, once I got started on Blackboard (the online format that we used), the process was very doable and clear (much to my relief).  We checked in with the instructor and classmates on certain days and received specific instructions on assignments and expectations.  Most of the interaction with peers was through forums when we were asked to comments on other student’s posts.
It’s not surprising to me that the online learning trend is moving forward and on its way to becoming the educational paradigm of the future.  I can foresee that I would incorporate some of the flipped classroom ideas into my own instruction.  For example, if an upcoming unit has difficult concepts and vocabulary, I may have my students watch a video on the topic (so they can review often) then have the students participate in activities that support what they learned on the video.  
  1. Project Tomorrow (2012) Learning in the 21st century: A 5 year retrospective on the growth in online learning. Speak Up Report Retrieved from: http://www.blackboard.com/CMSPages/GetFile.aspx?guid=bde5cb81-8bfa-43f4-abea-3437d37b4a44

  • Choose one of the “Videos from Speak Up” to view. In your reflection include your opinion, what surprises you, what doesn’t, and how the information informs your philosophy and practice of teaching. Videos are at the bottom of the page. (http://www.tomorrow.org/speakup/speakup_presentations.html)
Dear Mr. President: Students Speak Up to President Obama  about how to improve their schools:
The video that I chose was Dear Mr. President: Students Speak Up to President Obama  about how to improve their schools.  I felt that this was fitting since President Obama was recently re-elected for a second term.  Students were asked “What is the one thing you would do to improve schools to ensure that all students receive the education and skills they need to be successful in life?”  The following are some of the suggestions from high school students:
Reduce class size, provide new textbooks, de-emphasize standardized testing, provide laptops and other types of technology, provide hands on experience, promote exploration, allow students to bring in their own technology, connect the curriculum to things that are relevant to the world, make school more affordable, nationalize the curriculum, hire passionate teachers, provide job skills for after high school, let students have more flexibility with class choices, and every class should have a great teacher.
All of these suggestions were not surprising to me.  I agree with each one because in my opinion, every suggestion and request by students on the video should already be the norm and provided by schools.  Some of these suggestions are in my control (connect curriculum to real life, provide hands one experiences, promote exploration) and I can strive to provide these basic needs to my students.  However, many of the suggestions were requests that I can’t control such as making school more affordable, nationalizing the curriculum and so forth.  I believe that doing my best to be a teacher that can make a difference in the lives of students is my priority as an educator.
  1. Project Tomorrow (Year N/A) Dear Mr. President: Students Speak Up to President Obama  about how to improve their schools. Retrieved from: http://www.tomorrow.org/DearMrPresidentVideo.html

  • Have a look at the “youthTEACH2Learn resources.” How would you start such a program at your school site? You will be leaving your site, of course, but find out how you can start programs, clubs, etc. at your school site. What would be the benefits of starting a “Future Teachers” type of organization? (http://www.tomorrow.org/programs/teach2learn.html.)
YouthTEACH2Learn:
A program like YouthTEACH2Learn is a great way to introduce teaching as a career to high school students.  In the program, students learn how to teach, experience what it’s like to be in the classroom working with children, and gain valuable insight to what a career as a teacher would be like.  It is similar to our teaching credential program, but at the high school level and not as intense.  When attempting to start a program like this at my school site, I would try to include groups like ASP (Associated Student Programs) and other student-run organizations as well as the career center/counseling department.  Starting a program like this at my school site would provide students with the opportunity to explore teaching as a career option, without the high-stakes pressure.  This is especially useful for students who are undecided and would like to gain some experience before making decisions about college programs or career choices.  The world is always in need of good teachers and providing a program that focuses on teaching will give students a head start on beginning their careers as teachers.

(3) Project Tomorrow (Year N/A) YouthTEACH2Learn. Retrieved from: http://www.tomorrow.org/programs/teach2learn.html

EDSS 511 Cell Biology Unit Plan


UNIT TOPIC:  Cell Biology

1. UNIT CONTEXT
Subject/Content Area - Cell Biology
Course - Biology I
Grade Level  - 9/10  
Length of Unit:  This unit will cover 7 periods / 2hr blocks in October.  

  1. FACTS ABOUT THE LEARNERS

Whole Class Information
  • Number of students in class:  37 students in the class

  • Demographic Information: Students are mostly Caucasian, with three hispanic, two asian and two middle eastern students.  There are 18 females and 19 males.  Seven students are bilingual, two of them (siblings, twins) are designated as ELLs (CELDT level 2).  They moved to San Diego from Sweden and speak fluent swedish and some English.   Six students are designated with IEPs (all SLD).  

Developmental Needs:

Readiness:  Most of the students in the class read and write at grade level with the exception of the two ELLs.  Many of the students need to hear the directions multiple times in order to complete a task.  Some students are disruptive during lectures, but are engaged during the labs.  Some students do not finish their work in class nor do they do their homework assignments.

Interests: Many of the students are involved in after school activities such as sports and clubs. There are five football players, one volleyball player, two students on the water polo team, and three on the baseball team.  One student enjoys dance and is on the dance team and two students enjoy recreational soccer.    

Learning profiles: This group of students has different learning styles, multiple intelligences and abilities.  They need opportunities to learn the content using many different strategies and need to review the content often. 

Individual Student Information and Differentiation Strategies

Student #1, ELL - Elena: Elena is a 15 year-old 10th grader and an English learner.  Originally from Mexico, she has lived in the U.S. for one and a half years.  Both of her parents are professionals.  She is literate in Spanish and enjoys reading Spanish literature.  She has had above average grades from her school in Mexico and is rarely absent from school.  Elena is shy, but works well in small groups. Her CELDT results have categorized Elena as an Early Intermediate ELL.

Developmental Needs:

Readiness: Elena has been designated as an early intermediate English learner according to her CELDT results.  She needs improvement in the areas of reading, writing, speaking and vocabulary.
Interests: Elena loves to dance.  She takes dance classes at the community center and enjoys dressing up and dancing to represent her native country of Mexico.  Elena also likes to spend time with her family.  She has a large extended family and visits her grandparents in Mexico every Summer. 
Learning Profile: Elena is literate in Spanish and received above average grades while in school in Mexico.  Therefore, she is capable of academic success.  Elena is on the shy side and works well in small groups.


Differentiation Strategies:
Content: Teacher creates a word wall with difficult content vocabulary (with pictures and meanings) in the classroom.
Content: Teacher includes strong visual components into the lesson material.
Process:  Student is paired with native-English speaking peer during the labs and small group activities.
Product:  Drawing activities like the cell analogy poster to use pictures to explain concepts.
Learning environment: Student sits next to native English-speaking peer.

Student #2, ELL - Alexander: Alexander was born in Spain and lived their for his first 6 years.  His family moved from Spain to Sweden where he lived for the last 8 years.  He and his family moved to the U.S. a week after the start of the 2012-13 school year.  Alexander’s parents are both professionals and they show great concern for their children’s success in school.  Alexander has a twin sister and they have a very close relationship.  They support each other in school and are often together during the breaks and lunch.  They both go to the tutoring center after school to get help on their classwork and homework.  Alexander is very shy and rarely speaks in class. Alexander has not taken the CELDT test yet.  However, he has been initially categorized as a Early Intermediate ELL.

Developmental Needs:

Readiness: Alexander has been initially designated as an early intermediate ELL without taking the CELDT assessment.  He asks and answers questions by using simple sentences and writes answers to analysis/conclusion questions using simple sentences.  He needs improvement in the areas of reading, writing, speaking and vocabulary.
Interests: Alexander enjoys playing soccer and video games.  However, he does not have too much time for leisure activities since moving to the U.S because he is busy with his studies.
Learning Profile: Alexander was a good student in Sweden, according to his parents.  He had above average grades.  He is very shy and rarely speaks in class.  Occasionally, he will ask for help during a lab.

Differentiation Strategies:
Content: Teacher provides student with notes, lab protocols and other literature before they are handed out in class.  Student will be able to read ahead of time to look up unfamiliar vocabulary or ask for clarification.
Content: Teacher includes strong visual components into the lesson material.
Process: Pair student with native English-speaking peer during the labs or group activities.
Process: Have student participate in small group activities to help student with oral communication skills.
Product: Assign drawing activities like the cell analogy poster to incorporate pictures to explain concepts.
Learning environment: Student sits next to native English-speaking peer.

Student #3, Special Education - Alex: Alex is a 15 year old boy in the 10th grade.  The development of his literacy skills has been delayed from a young age and he was diagnosed with  SLD.  Alex has received special education support since the 2nd grade, primarily in the areas of reading and writing.  Alex reads at the 7th grade level and struggles with decoding words.  Alex takes medication daily and uses an inhaler for an asthma condition.  Alex keeps to himself and does not participate in class or group discussions or activities. 

Developmental Needs:

Readiness: Alex has received special education support since the 2nd grade and reads at the 7th grade level.  He has difficulty decoding words and needs support in this area as well as with reading, writing, speaking and vocabulary.
Interests: Alex is a loner and does not like to participate in group activities.
Learning Profile: Alex is a loner and has difficulty contributing to class discussion or participating in group activities.  He also has health issues, which require medication.

Differentiation Strategies:

Content: Teacher includes strong visual components into the lesson material.
Process: Student is grouped in pairs or small groups to encourage communication and participation without overwhelming student.
Product: Assess student based on strengths.  Give student rubric to outline expectations. 
Learning environment: Student sits next to peer that is .

Student #4, Special Education - Samantha: Samantha is a 16 year old girl in the 10th grade.  She has been identified as a student with SLD and has an IEP in place.  She is repeating the Intro to Biology class because she failed it during her freshman year.  She is easily distracted and is unable to concentrate and stay focused.  She struggles with understanding subject-specific content.  Samantha is very energetic and has a extroverted personality.  She is very friendly with her classmates and will talk to anyone nearby.

Developmental Needs:

Readiness: Samantha failed Biology I in her freshman year.  She is motivated to successfully complete the class as a sophomore.  Her Mother encourages her to stay on top of things and complete all classwork on time.
Interests: Samantha is a very social person and likes to hang out with her friends after school and on weekends.  She likes to go to the mall to shop and hang out.  She does not participate in sports or clubs.
Learning Profile: Samantha is easily distracted and needs to focus on her classwork.  

Differentiation Strategies:

Content: Give student a checklist or rubric.
Process: Teacher pairs student with focused peer during the lab to keep student on task.
Process: Teacher routinely checks in on student during the lab and other activities to keep student on task.
Product: Break larger assignments into smaller, more manageable chunks.
Learning environment: Seat Samantha next to someone who is focused and not interested in socializing.

Student #5, Mainstream - Jack: Jack is a 15 year old boy in the 9th grade.  So far, Jack is doing well in biology class.  He is an intelligent teenager as evidenced by his scores on labs, quizzes and tests, which are above average.  While he is doing well on his classwork, Jack is very disruptive in class.  He is has a lot of energy and constantly seeks attention from his classmates.  He talks to his neighbors while the teacher is lecturing, which causes the teacher to reprimand him often.  Jack is a very talented artist.  He has displayed his talent in classroom activities which require drawing.  He mentioned that his Mother is a very talented artist.  Both of his parents are architects.

Developmental Needs:

Readiness: Jack understands the instructional content and receives above average grades, but is very disruptive in the classroom.  
Interests: Jack is very artistic.  He takes various art classes and currently enjoys painting.
Learning Profile: Jack has side conversations during lectures and interrupts when others are answering questions.  When asked to quiet down by the teacher, he continues to talk until a student tells him to quiet down.

Differentiation Strategies:

Content: Give student explicit ground rules with consequences.
Process: Involve the student during instruction such as having student help pass out papers or write on the whiteboard.
Product: Student will receive the minimum attention necessary.  
Learning Environment: Seat the student in an area near the teachers desk and away from friends.

These differentiation strategies will be implemented and assessed based on successful outcomes.  Routine adjustments to the strategies will be made according to the outcomes.

2. Unit Rationale: Enduring Understandings & Essential Questions

This unit on cell biology is fundamental to learning about all biological processes in life.  This unit explains the basic concepts of what makes up a cell and how cells work.  This basic knowledge of cells is the foundation for more difficult concepts like genetics and evolution, which are discussed in the units that follow the cell biology unit.  Understanding how cells work can offer information into healthy and diseased states.  Illnesses like cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease are all disorders caused by malfunctions in the cell.  In addition to disease processes, the study of cell biology is important in other areas such as producing foods.  Genetically modified crops are based on techniques and information provided by cell biology research.  Therefore, the study of cells and their function can provide valuable information that is fundamental to life.

Enduring Understandings (EU)

Students will understand that cells are the basic units of life.  Students will understand that there are two main categories of cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic.  Students will understand that cells contain organelles that have specific functions within the cell.  Students will be able to identify and name the function of each organelle.  Students will understand that cells have boundaries called cell membranes and that these membranes regulate what enters and leaves the cell.  Students will learn about the different ways that molecules move through the cell membrane.  Students will experience first hand, the concepts regarding cells when participating in hands-on lab activities.

Essential Questions

  1. Why is cell biology important to life? (explanation)  
  2. What are the basic components of the cell and what are their functions?  (explanation)  
  3. How do prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ? (explanation) How are they similar?  (explanation)  
  4. What are the ways that molecules enter and leave cells?  (explanation)  
  5. How can you use this knowledge to better the world? (application)  
  6. What kinds of analogies can you make between cells and the world you live in?  (perspective)

Reason for the Instructional Strategies & Student Activities
The students in this biology class will need as many different strategies and repeated exposure to grasp the difficult concepts covered in the cell unit.  The student activities include those that benefit the auditory, visual and kinesthetic leaners as well as the ELL and special needs students.  Some of these students are easily distracted and need activities that keep them engaged.  The ELL will need lots of visuals and support with their literary skills.  

  1. STANDARDS

Content Standards
Cell Biology: 1a. Students know cells are enclosed within semipermeable membranes that regulate their interaction with their surroundings. 1c. Students know how prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells (including those from plants and animals), and viruses differ in complexity and general structure. 1e. Students know the role of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in the secretion of proteins. 1f. Students know usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide.  1g. Students know  the role of the mitochondria in making stored chemical-bond energy available to cells by completing the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide. 
Investigation and Experimentation: 1d. Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence.

ELD Standards
Listening and speaking: Cluster 8I. Identify the main idea and some supporting details of oral presentations, familiar literature, and key concepts of subject-matter content.  
Reading Fluency 7 Systematic Vocabulary Development: Cluster 6I. Use a standard dictionary to derive the meaning of unknown vocabulary. 
Literary Response & Analysis: Cluster 2I. Apply knowledge of language to analyze and derive meaning from literary texts and comprehend them.
Writing Conventions: Cluster 1ESI Use sentences with consistent variations in grammatical form.

  1. UNIT OBJECTIVES
  1. After viewing the cells rap video, students will be interested to learn more about the cell, cell structure and function. (cognitive, CA standards Cell biology 1c,e,f,g).
  2. After viewing a powerpoint presentation on prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes, students will be able to distinguish how prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells (including those from plants and animals), and viruses differ in complexity and general structure by completing their cell notes worksheet. (cognitive, CA standard Cell biology1c)
  3. After viewing a powerpoint presentation on prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes, students will be able to identify the main ideas and some supporting details of key concepts of the cell, using good listening skills.  (language, ELD standard Listening and Speaking: cluster 8I)
  4. After viewing a powerpoint presentation on prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes, students will be able to understand the meanings of new vocabulary words by using a standard dictionary to derive the meaning of unknown vocabulary  (language, ELD standard Reading Fluency 7 Systematic Vocabulary Development: Cluster 6I)
  5. After giving students a cell organelle template and colored pencils, students will be able to make organelle flashcards and use them to study and remember the parts and functions of cell organelles including the role of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in the secretion of proteins, chloroplasts in the production of usable energy and mitochondria in the production of stored energy. (psychomotor, CA standards Cell biology 1c,e,f,g).
  6. After creating the 3-column chart with cell comparisons, students will be able to study the chart to master the content (cognitive, CA standard Cell biology1c).
  7. After reviewing the organelle flashcards, students will be able to better identify cell organelles and define the functions of each organelle using the vocabulary on the flashcards to study (cognitive, CA standards Cell biology 1c,e,f,g)
  8. After learning about organelles and their functions, students will be able to make a poster with a drawing of an analogy to the cell.  (psychomotor, CA standards Cell biology 1e, 1f, 1g)
  9. After conducting the cell lab exercise, students will be able to identify the cell membrane, nuclei and cytoplasm in cheek cells and nuclei, cell wall, cytoplasm and chloroplasts in elodea and onion plant cells and answer analysis/conclusion questions using sentences with good grammatical form. (psychomotor, CA standard Cell biology1c, ELD standard Writing Conventions: Cluster 1ESI)
  10. After creating the cell analogy poster, students will know how organelle function in the cell is similar to functions of systems in the real world (psychomotor, CA standards Cell biology 1c,e,f,g).
  11. After answering the questions on  page 181 of the text, students will be able to have a better understanding of organelle function by completing the homework and using it to study (cognitive, CA standards Cell biology 1c,e,f,g).
  12. After completing the cell review warm up, students will be able to know each cell type and label cell parts and name the function of each part (cognitive, CA standards Cell biology 1c,e,f,g).
  13. After viewing a powerpoint presentation on the cell membrane and diffusion, students will be able to know that cells are enclosed within semipermeable membranes that regulate their interaction with their surroundings and define the terms hypotonic, isotonic, hypertonic, osmosis, diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis.(cognitive, CA standard Cell biology 1a).
  14. After viewing a powerpoint presentation on the cell membrane and diffusion, students will be able to identify the main ideas and some supporting details of key concepts of the cell membrane, using good listening skills. (language, ELD standard Listening and Speaking: cluster 8I)
  15. After viewing a powerpoint presentation on the cell membrane and diffusion, students will be able to understand the meanings of new vocabulary words by using a standard dictionary to derive the meaning of unknown vocabulary  (language, ELD standard Reading Fluency 7 Systematic Vocabulary Development: Cluster 6I)
  16. After participating in the diffusion lab, students will be able to observe glucose but not starch diffusing from the dialysis tubing into the iodine solution and know that molecules move from an area that is more concentrated to a less concentrated area and answer analysis/conclusion questions using sentences with good grammatical form. (psychomotor, CA standard Cell biology 1a. ELD standard Writing Conventions: Cluster 1ESI)
  17. After reading and taking notes on section 7-3 of text, students will know about cell membranes and how molecules pass between them by applying knowledge of language to analyze and derive meaning from literary texts and comprehend them. (language, ELD standard Literary Response & Analysis: Cluster 2I)
  18. After the warm up activity, students will be able to define the term diffusion (cognitive, CA standard Cell biology 1a).
  19. After viewing the teacher demonstration of osmosis, students will be able to observe water moving out of an egg surrounded by corn syrup and water moving into an egg surrounded by water.  (psychomotor, CA standard Cell biology 1a)
  20. After participating in the plasmolysis lab, students will be able to observe an onion cell shrivel when water moves out of an onion cell that is surrounded by salt water and an onion cell swell up when the salt water is replaced by water and answer analysis/conclusion questions using sentences with good grammatical form. (psychomotor, CA standard Cell biology 1a, ELD standard Writing Conventions: Cluster 1ESI)
  21. After taking the cell mastery quiz, students will be able to identify which concepts were mastered and which concepts require more review by receiving a score of 7 out of 10 or better (cognitive, CA standards Cell biology 1a,c,e,f,g).
  22. After answering the questions on p197 of the text, students will be able to understand all of the major concepts in the cell unit by completing the homework assignment (cognitive, CA standards Cell biology 1a,c,e,f,g).
  23. After participating in 5 review activities, students will be able to have a better understanding of the concepts regarding the cell unit for the upcoming test by fully participating in the activities(cognitive, CA standards Cell biology 1a,c,e,f,g. ELD standard Reading Fluency 7 Systematic Vocabulary Development: Cluster 6I).
  24. After completing the cell unit review worksheet, students will be able to understand the concepts and vocabulary covered in the cell unit by using the review sheet to study for the cell unit exam (cognitive, CA standards Cell biology 1a,c,e,f,g. ELD standard Reading Fluency 7 Systematic Vocabulary Development: Cluster 6I).

5. ASSESSMENT PLAN

DAY 3
Entry level: Students will be informally assessed on what they learned from the cell rap video when teacher asks students what they learned and liked about the cell rap video. (Objective 1).
Formative: Teacher will informally check for understanding during the powerpoint presentation by asking the students if they have any questions about the material after each topic in the presentation (Objective 2, Cell Biology standards 1c,e,f,g, ELD standard Listening and Speaking, Cluster 8I)
Formative: Students will be orally assessed on their knowledge of organelles and their functions while students are creating the organelle flashcards (Objective 5, CA standards Cell biology 1c,e,f,g)
Formative: Students will be formally assessed on completeness and correctness of 3-column chart with comparison of cell types (Objective 6, Cell Biology standards 1c,e,f,g).

DAY 4
Entry level: Students will be informally assessed about their knowledge of organelles and their functions when the teacher walks around and asks students to orally define the function of organelles (Objective 7, Cell Biology standards 1c,e,f,g, ELD standard Listening and Speaking: cluster 8I)
Formative: Teacher will walk around and informally ask students procedural and analytical questions about the cell lab during the lab exercise (Objective 9, Cell Biology standards 1c).
Formative: Teacher will formally assess the cell lab write up for completeness, correctness and proficient writing and grammar skills and provide feedback on the lab write up(Objective 9, CA standard Cell biology1c, Investigation and Experimentation: 1d, ELD standard Writing Conventions: Cluster 1ESI).
Formative: Teacher will walk around the classroom and ask students questions about organelles and their cell analogies while students create their cell analogy posters (Objective 10, CA standards Cell biology 1c,e,f,g)
Formative: Students will be formally assessed on completeness and correctness of homework assignment (Objective 11, CA standards Cell biology 1c,e,f,g)

DAY 5
Entry level: Teacher will informally assess student understanding of the different types of cells and their structural components after students complete cell review worksheet (Objective 12, CA standards Cell biology 1c,e,f,g).
Formative: Teacher will informally check for understanding during the cell membrane powerpoint presentation by asking the students if they have any questions about the material after each topic is introduced in the presentation (Objective 13,14,15, Cell Biology standards 1c,e,f,g, ELD standard Listening and Speaking, Cluster 8I, ELD standard Reading Fluency 7 Systematic Vocabulary Development: Cluster 6I)
Formative: Teacher will walk around and informally ask students procedural and analytical questions about the diffusion lab during the lab exercise (Objective 16, Cell Biology standards 1a).
Formative: Teacher will formally assess the diffusion lab write up for completeness, correctness and proficient writing and grammar skills and provide feedback on the lab write up(Objective 16, CA standard Cell biology1a, Investigation and Experimentation: 1d, ELD standard Writing Conventions: Cluster 1ESI).
Formative: Students will be formally assessed on their ability to read section 7-3 and take comprehensive notes using proficient literacy skills. (Objective 17, CA standards Cell biology 1a, ELD standard Literary Response & Analysis: Cluster 2I)

DAY6
Entry level: Teacher will informally assess whether students know the concept of diffusion by asking them to write what they know about diffusion in the warm up activity (Objective 18, CA standard Cell biology1a)
Formative: After viewing the teacher demonstrate osmosis using chicken eggs, students will be orally assessed (informal) on the concepts of diffusion and the terms hypotonic, hypertonic, isotonic (Objective 19, CA standard Cell biology1a, ELD standard Listening and Speaking: cluster 8I)
Formative: Teacher will walk around and informally ask students procedural and analytical questions about the plasmolysis lab during the lab exercise (Objective 20, Cell Biology standards 1a).
Formative: Teacher will formally assess the plasmolysis lab write up for completeness, correctness and proficient writing and grammar skills and provide feedback on the lab write up.(Objective 20, CA standard Cell biology1a, Investigation and Experimentation: 1d, ELD standard Writing Conventions: Cluster 1ESI).
Formative: Students will be formally assessed on their ability to answer 10 quiz questions on the concepts covered in the cell unit.  Teacher will provide remedial activities if student is not successful the first time around. (Objective 21, CA standards Cell biology 1a,c,e,f,g).
Formative:  Students will be formally assessed on completeness and correctness of homework assignment (Objective 22, CA standards Cell biology 1a,c,e,f,g)

DAY 7
Formative: Students will be informally assessed for understanding of cell structure and function, membrane structure and function, diffusion, osmosis, and all vocabulary associated with the cell unit while participating in the review activities. Students will peer review their cell analogy posters and offer constructive comments. (Objective 23, CA standards Cell biology 1a,c,e,f,g, ELD standard Listening and Speaking: cluster 8I)

DAY 8
Summative: Students will take the cell unit exam.

Rubric of Cell Analogy Poster:


Student Name:_____________________

Cell Analogy Poster Rubric


Category
1
2
3
4
Use of class time
Did not use class time productively and/or was distracted by peers.
Completed part of the poster during the class period.  Sometimes distracted by peers.
Used class time well during the class period.  Completed most of the poster. Mainly focused on the task and not distracted by peers.
Used class time well during the class period.  Completed the poster. Completely focused on the task. Never distracted by peers.
Graphics - relevance
Graphics are not clear and do not connect with cell parts and function.
Some of the graphics are identifiable and related to cell parts and function.
Many of the graphics are identifiable and related to cell parts and function.
All of the graphics are identifiable and related to cell parts and function.  The analogy is well related.
Required elements
Many of the required elements including pictures, definitions and relationships are missing.
Some of the elements including pictures, definitions and relationships are included in the poster.
Many of the elements including pictures, definitions and relationships are included in the poster.
All of the elements including pictures, definitions and relationships are included in the poster as well as additional information.
Attractive
Cell analogy poster is sparse, messy and/or poorly designed.
Cell analogy poster is somewhat organized but still a little messy.
Cell analogy poster is well designed, neat and pleasing to the eye.
Cell analogy poster is extremely well designed, organized, neat and pleasing to the eye.
Grammar
There are 4 or more grammatical errors.
There are 2-3 grammatical errors.
There is one grammatical error.
There are no grammatical errors.

  1. STEPS OF INSTRUCTION 

Into: Warm-up activity - Students will watch a cell rap video which shows two cells rapping about their internal organelle parts.  The video shows each organelle and raps about the function of each using clever lyrics.  After describing 1-3 organelles, the rap goes back to a catchy chorus then raps about another set of organelles.  After watching the video, teacher will introduce the basic ideas about the cell including cell types, cell structure and function in a powerpoint presentation.

First Day Objective: After viewing the cell rap video, listening to the Introduction to the Cell powerpoint presentation and making organelle flashcards, SWBAT know that the two main types of cells are prokaryotes and eukaryotes, know which organelles are found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and understand the function of each cell part by using good listening skills and completing the organelle flashcards. (Cognitive and psychomotor, CA standards Cell biology 1c,e,f,g, ELD standard Listening and Speaking: cluster 8I).

Student Activity:

  • Students will watch the cell rap video (Hook).  After watching the video, teacher will ask students to discuss what they know about a cell and why it is important.  Students will offer their ideas while the teacher writes them down on the whiteboard.  (10 min)
  • Students will take notes about the types of cells, their similarities and differences, the organelles in the cells and their functions.
  • Students will receive a cell organelle flashcard template, color each organelle with colored pencils, write the names and functions of each organelle in the designated place and cut out each card where outlined.
  • After completing organelle flashcards, students will scramble flashcards and try to put them together according to picture, name and function.  
  • After one attempt on their own, students will pair up and test each others knowledge of organelle identification and function.

Assessment:

Entry level: Teacher will informally ask students to share what they currently know about cells and why they think cells are important.
Formative: Teacher will informally ask students if they understand the content and vocabulary introduced on each slide in the powerpoint presentation.
Formative: Teacher will walk around the classroom while the students are making their organelle flashcards and orally ask students to identify each organelle and define the function for each.

Through

Unit Calendar: (Introduction to organic molecules)


Day 3
Day 4
Day 5
Day 6
Day 7
Content Standards
Cell Biology 1c. Students know how prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells (including those from plants and animals), and viruses differ in complexity and general structure.  1e. Students know the role of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in the secretion of proteins. 1f. Students know usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide.  1g. Students know the role of the mitochondria in making stored chemical-bond energy available to cells by completing the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide. 


Cell Biology 1c. Students know how prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells (including those from plants and animals), and viruses differ in complexity and general structure.  1e. Students know the role of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in the secretion of proteins. 1f. Students know usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide.  1g. Students know the role of the mitochondria in making stored chemical-bond energy available to cells by completing the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide. 


Cell Biology 1a Students know cells are enclosed within semipermeable membranes that regulate their interaction with their surroundings.  1c. Students know how prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells (including those from plants and animals), and viruses differ in complexity and general structure.  1e. Students know the role of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in the secretion of proteins. 1f. Students know usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide.  1g. Students know the role of the mitochondria in making stored chemical-bond energy available to cells by completing the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide. 


Cell Biology 1a Students know cells are enclosed within semipermeable membranes that regulate their interaction with their surroundings.  1c. Students know how prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells (including those from plants and animals), and viruses differ in complexity and general structure.  1e. Students know the role of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in the secretion of proteins. 1f. Students know usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide.  1g. Students know the role of the mitochondria in making stored chemical-bond energy available to cells by completing the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide. 

Cell Biology 1a Students know cells are enclosed within semipermeable membranes that regulate their interaction with their surroundings.  1c. Students know how prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells (including those from plants and animals), and viruses differ in complexity and general structure.  1e. Students know the role of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in the secretion of proteins. 1f. Students know usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide.  1g. Students know the role of the mitochondria in making stored chemical-bond energy available to cells by completing the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide. 

Learning Objectives
Cognitive: After viewing the cell rap video, SWBAT be more interested in cell parts and function.
Cognitive: After introducing the basic concepts of cells, their organelles and organelle function, SWBAT define content vocabulary words and connect these words to the main ideas regarding cells, organelles and organelle function.
Psychomotor: After students create their organelle flash cards, SWBAT use the cards to practice naming cell organelles and match their function.
Cognitive: After the warm up activity (practice organelle cards) and reviewing the cell notes, SWBAT match the organelle picture with the name and function of organelle.  Psychomotor: After reviewing the cell lab protocol, SWBAT conduct the cell lab from start to finish, prepare cheek cell and elodea cell wet mounts and see first-hand, the cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus from plant and animal cells. Psychomotor: After students create a cell analogy poster using poster paper and colored pencils, students will know how organelle function in the cell is similar to functions of systems in our daily lives.
Cognitive:  After the warm-up activity (cell review), SWBAT know each cell type and label cell parts and name the function of each part.  Cognitive:  After introducing the basic concepts of the cell membrane, SWBAT define the vocabulary and connect these words to the main ideas of the cell membrane and function.  Psychomotor: After reviewing the diffusion lab protocol, SWBAT conduct the diffusion lab from start to finish and see glucose move through the semipermeable membrane but not starch.  
Affective: After teacher reviews the cell lab worksheet, students will be able to finish answering the analysis/conclusion questions in the cell lab and feel confident about their answers on the worksheet before turning it in for grading.
Cognitive:  After completing the warm-up (What is diffusion?), SWBAT define the term and know that not all molecules are able to pass through a membrane.  Psychomotor:  After reviewing the plasmolysis lab,  SWBAT Conduct the experiment from start to finish and observe the cytoplasm from onion cells move out of the cell under hypertonic conditions.
Cognitive: After taking the Cell mastery quiz, SWBAT identify which concepts were mastered and which concepts are difficult and require more review.  Affective: After teacher reviews the diffusion lab worksheet, students will be able to finish answering the analysis/conclusion questions in the cell lab and feel confident about their answers on the worksheet  before turning it in for grading.
Cognitive: After completing the warm-up activity (Venn diagram of prokaryotes, animal and plant cells), SWBAT review what cell components are unique and shared by bacteria,plant and animal cells.
Psychomotor: After participating in the white-board review activity, SWBAT review questions similar to those on the cell mastery quiz and those that may be on the upcoming unit test.
Psychomotor: After playing the fly swatter review  game, SWBAT review the vocabulary in the cell unit and define each vocabulary word.  Psychomotor:  After participating in the quiz-quiz trade activity, SWBAT know organelle name and function in the cell.  Affective:  After students share their cell analogy poster with other groups and describe what each organelle does in the cell, SWBAT identify all organelles and define their function. Cognitive: After students work on the cell review sheet, SWBAT label all of the organelles in bacterial, plant and animal cells and understand their function.
Affective: After teacher reviews the plasmolysis lab worksheet, students will be able to finish answering the analysis/conclusion questions in the plasmolysis lab and feel confident about their answers on the worksheet before turning it in for grading.  
Student Activity
(1) Watch the cell rap video. (2) Fill in vocabulary and short answers on the cell worksheet while the teacher is introducing the topic using a powerpoint presentation.  (3) Create organelle flash cards by cutting out and coloring each organelle card then study with a partner. 
(1) Practice identifying organelles and their function using organelle flashcards.  (2) Participate in the cell lab by creating wet mount samples of cheek cells and elodea leaf cells then observing the samples under the microscope.  Students will identify and draw the cell nucleus, cytoplasm and cell membrane for each sample.  (3) Create a poster of an analogy to the cell.
(1) Label the cell parts including organelles and describe the function for each on the cell review worksheet.  (2) Students take notes on cell membrane concepts while teacher introduces concepts using a powerpoint presentation.  (3) Participate in a diffusion lab by preparing a dialysis tubing bag filled with starch and glucose making observations and analyzing data.  (4) Finish cell analogy poster if not completed during the previous class.  (5) Complete cell lab worksheet while teacher reviews the analysis and conclusion questions and submit for grading.
(1) Define the term diffusion. (2) Participate in the plasmolysis lab - students will observe the effects of high solute on red onion cells and draw and analyze their observations.  (3) Cell mastery quiz.  (4) Complete diffusion lab worksheet while teacher reviews the analysis and conclusion questions and submit for grading.
(1) Fill in the Venn diagram with cell structures that are common and unique to prokaryotes, plant and animal cells. (2) White board review activity (3) Fly swatter review game (4) Participate in quiz-quiz-trade activity (5) Complete cell review worksheet (6) Complete plasmolysis lab worksheet while teacher reviews the analysis and conclusion questions and submit for grading.
Assessment
Formative: Monitor student understanding of cell parts and function (informal).  Ask students about organelles during teacher walk-around during the organelle flashcard activity (informal).



Formative:  Ask students about organelles during teacher walk-around during the organelle flashcard warm-up activity (informal). Walk around and ask students procedural and analytical questions during the cell lab (informal).  Cell lab worksheet and lab write-up (formal).  Grade the cell analogy poster for content and art (formal). 

Formative: Monitor student understanding with the cell review worksheet.  Diffusion lab worksheet and lab write-up (formal).  
Formative:  Plasmolysis lab worksheet and lab write-up (formal).  Cell mastery quiz (formal) 
Formative: Check for understanding using all of the review activities.  All informal assessments.  Students will take unit test next class.
Closure/Beyond: 

Closure: Students will take a unit exam on Day 8.  Student are offered the opportunity to make up points by doing test corrections.  Test correction requirements include student writing out the question, writing out the correct answer and an explanation of why they chose the wrong answer (this is to inform the teacher whether the test question was somehow tricky or unclear).

Beyond:  Students are asked to think about the mitochondria and chloroplasts and how these organelles are involved in energy production.  This will connect the previous cell unit with the next unit on cellular respiration and chemical energy.

LESSON PLAN


1.  TITLE OF THE LESSON
          
         Diffusion Lab
2. CURRICULUM AREA & GRADE LEVEL
Grade 9/10 Intro to Biology
This is a very large class (35+ students) with a mixed population of abilities and learning styles.  This class consists mostly of freshmen with some sophomores.  They are very energetic and getting them settled requires a lot of effort on the part of the teacher.  There are a few students with IEPs and one ELL.

3A. STUDENT INFORMATION:
English Language Learners  One ELD student, Alex, intermediate level, CELDT level 3.
        1.) Readiness Level - Understand some English, responds to simple tasks in English.  Speaks using short phrases and sentences.
        2.) Learning Profile - this student has difficulty with vocabulary and reading comprehension and need assistance in these areas.      
        3.) Interest  Alex is shy and does not speak in class.  He will work in pairs/groups if asked.  He is a kinesthetic leaner and seems to enjoy doing the labs.

3B. STUDENT INFORMATION:
Students w/ Special Needs  Six students with IEP plans.
        1.) Readiness Level -  Intermediate - Early Advanced
        2.) Learning Profile - Needs help staying on task, easily distracted by neighboring students, cannot focus on the ask at hand.   Some of these students prefer a kinesthetic learning format. These students have difficulty working in small groups because they tend to socialize more and get off task. 
        3.) Interest - Sports, ocean activities, dance and arts.

4. RATIONALE
     A. Enduring Understanding - The cell membrane is a semi-permeable membrane that forms a barrier between the inside and outside of the cell.  All living things have a cell membrane.  The cell membrane protects the interior contents of the cell and regulates the movement of substances in and out of the cell.  Diffusion is the process by which small molecules pass through the cell membrane when a system is not in equilibrium.  Molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.  Diffusion is essential for bringing nutrients into the cell and releasing wastes out of the cell without spending energy.  Without diffusion, cells would not get the necessary resources required for survival.

     B. Essential Questions - What is diffusion?  What is equilibrium? How do molecules move across the cell membrane?  What is the definition of selectively permeable?  Why is diffusion important for cells?

     C. Reason for Instructional Strategies and Student Activities - The hands-on experiment and diffusion lab worksheet with analysis questions will help students with different learning styles to understand the instructional content.  This lab activity will help the ELL with English vocabulary and writing. The lab exercise will be engaging for the kinesthetic learners as well as the students with IEPs.

5. CA CONTENT STANDARD(S) - Cell Biology: 1a. Students know cells are enclosed within semipermeable membranes that regulate their interaction with their surroundings.  Investigation and experimentation: 1d. Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence.



6. CA ELD STANDARD(S) - Writing Conventions Cluster 1ESI: Use sentences with consistent variations in grammatical form.
1.  LEARNING GOAL(S) - OBJECTIVE(S)

    Cognitive - After reviewing the procedure for the diffusion lab, students will be able to work in small cooperative groups to conduct the experiment from start to finish using the scientific method skills.

    Psychomotor - After modeling the experimental procedure, students will be able to actively participate in conducting an experiment.

    Language Development - After answering the analysis and conclusion questions on the lab worksheet, students will be able to use complex sentences in writing answers to the questions using supporting details.

1.  ASSESSMENT(S)

    Diagnostic/Entry Level - Students will answer pre-lab questions during the lab since there are gaps of time in the lab when students are waiting for results. 
  
   Formative-Progress Monitoring - Students will listen to a review of the lab protocol prior to the lab activity.  At this time, teacher will ask students if they understand the expectations and are able to follow the directions.

    Summative - Students will complete the lab write-up on the experiment conducted in class and answer analysis and conclusion questions using sentences with consistent variations in grammatical form, which encourage the student to expand upon their experience with the experiment. 

9A. EXPLANATION OF DIFFERENTIATION FOR
ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS

Content/Based on Readiness, Learning Profile or Interest - ELL student will work with English-speaking students during the lab experiment.  Teacher will model the lab set up and explain the procedure during the demonstration.  Teacher will guide the ELL student during the lab procedure and ask the student to orally explain what he is doing and why.

Process/Based on Readiness, Learning Profile or Interest - The ELL student will hear vocabulary during the question & answer portion of the class.  He will also receive additional exposure to the content vocabulary when answering the analysis and conclusion questions.

Product/Based on Readiness, Learning Profile or Interest - ELL student will finish the analysis and conclusion questions during and at the end of the diffusion lab.  This will give him the opportunity to ask about content vocabulary words, ideas or concepts that are unfamiliar.  ELL student will have the opportunity to ask for help during class, during lunch and the breaks, before & after school or at the tutoring center on Wednesdays.

9B. EXPLANATION OF DIFFERENTIATION FOR
STUDENTS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

Content/Based on Readiness, Learning Profile or Interest - Students will work in small groups during the lab and the teacher will guide these students to keep them on task.  Teacher will demonstrate the lab procedure to ensure that students understand the step-by-step procedure.

Process/Based on Readiness, Learning Profile or Interest - Students with attention deficit or those that are kinesthetic learners will have the opportunity for hands-on learning during the lab, to keep them engaged and on task.

Product/Based on Readiness, Learning Profile or Interest - Students will finish the analysis and conclusion questions on the diffusion lab worksheet. Students will have the opportunity to ask for help during class, during lunch and the breaks, before & after school or at the tutoring center on Wednesdays.
10. INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES  (120 min)

A. Anticipatory Set/Into - Teacher will pass out the cell review worksheet.  Teacher will instruct the students to complete the worksheet without using note first, then using notes to finish labeling the cell parts (10 min).
                                     
B. Instruction/Through - Teacher will introduce the cell membrane including cell membrane parts, function, diffusion, osmosis and the terms semipermeable, hypotonic, hypertonic, isotonic, diffusion, facilitated diffusion, exocytosis, endocytosis, and pinocytosis in a powerpoint presentation.  Teacher will check for understanding after presenting each slide. (15 min).
                                     
C. Guided Practice/Through - Teacher will pass out the diffusion lab protocol/worksheet to students.  Teacher will review the procedure (up to step 4) and demonstrate the process of filling the dialysis tubing and tying off the ends.  After the demonstration, teacher will ask students to break into small, cooperative groups based on proximity (10 min).
                                      
D. Independent Practice/Through - Teacher will ask one student from each group to pick up their lab materials from the back counter.  During the lab, the teacher will circulate around the room to (1) help students will procedural difficulties, (2) guide students to think critically and independently about concepts or ideas regarding diffusion and (3) orally check for understanding of concepts or ideas by asking students to explain why they are doing a certain step.  Teacher will ask students to clean up their lab materials and their work area. (70 min)

                                     
E. Closure - The teacher will guide students through the analysis/conclusion questions following the lab exercise (10 min).

                                      
F. Beyond - Teacher asks students to finish their lab worksheet as homework if they did not complete it in class.  Teacher also asks students to read and take notes on section 7-3 of textbook for homework (5 min).



11. STUDENT ACTIVITIES  (120 min)


A.  Anticipatory Set/Into - Students will receive the cell review worksheet and label as many parts as they can without the help of notes.  Students will use their notes to complete the remainder of the worksheet (10 min).

B. Instruction/Through - Students will take notes on cell membrane concepts including cell membrane parts, function, diffusion, osmosis and the terms semipermeable, hypotonic, hypertonic, isotonic, diffusion, facilitated diffusion, exocytosis, endocytosis, and pinocytosis while teacher presents the material in a powerpoint presentation (15 min).
                                     
C. Guided Practice/Through - Students will receive the diffusion protocol, read the protocol and listen to the teacher while she reviews the procedure (up to step 4).  Students will watch the demonstration on how to fill the dialysis bag and tie off the ends. (10 min)

                                     
D. Independent Practice/Through - Students will break into small, cooperative groups based on proximity.  One student from each group will go to the back counter to retrieve a bin filled with lab material.    During the lab, students will follow each step of the protocol, collect and record all data and clean up their lab area and put away all lab materials. (70 min)
                                     
E. Closure - Students will answer the analysis/conclusion questions during and after completion of the lab exercise.  Students will ask questions about vocabulary, ideas or concepts that they are having difficulty with. (10 min)
                                     
F. Beyond - Students will finish up their analysis/conclusion questions in class and will do it for homework if not completed. Students will read and take notes on section 7-3 of textbook for homework. (5 min)
12. RESOURCES
Cell Review Worksheet, Powerpoint presentation on Cell Membrane, Diffusion Lab protocol/worksheet
                                                                                                                                   
7. MATERIALS/RESOURCES
  • Cell Rap Video
  • Powerpoint presentation on the cell
  • Cell Organelle Flashcard template
  • Cell lab protocol/worksheet
  • Cell Analogy instructions
  • Cell Review warm-up
  • Powerpoint presentation on the cell membrane
  • Diffusion lab protocol/worksheet
  • Plasmolysis lab protocol/worksheet
  • Cell quiz
  • Mastery assignment on cells
  • Venn Diagram warm-up activity
  • White board review activity questions
  • Quiz-Quiz-Trade activity questions for index cards
  • Cell review sheet to study for unit exam
  • Cell unit exam

REFLECTION:

This cell unit is a long unit with lots of difficult concepts.  I tried to incorporate many strategies to meet the different learners in the class.  The auditory learners were able to get information from the rap video and oral presentations.  The visual learners were able to get information from the powerpoint presentations and activities such as the flashcards and Venn diagram review.  The lab activities provided hands-on learning opportunities for the kinesthetic, ELL and special needs students. The fly swatter got the students out of their seats for a fun, loud activity.  The students received multiple opportunities to learn the content.  The cell quiz informed me if the students are still having difficulty grasping the content.  Since many of the students got a 6 or less on the quiz, we spent one full class on review activities to prepare the students for the upcoming cell unit test.  I tried to connect the concepts discussed in the presentations with real world examples.  For example, we talked about why grocery stores sprayed water on fruits and vegetables.  Water is sprayed on the fruits and vegetables to prevent diffusion of water out resulting in shriveling.  I learned that my students need additional support to learn difficult concepts such as diffusion.  I am planning to start a lunch club where the students can come to the classroom during lunch and we can go over any concepts that they are having difficulty with.  At this time, I will use additional resources and methods not used in class due to time constraints, to teach the difficult concepts.  This will hopefully help the students to learn the content better for the next unit on cell respiration and chemical energy.

9. RUBRIC WITH SELF-ASSESSMENT
See attached Rubric